James Turrell - The Roden Crater Project
"Roden Crater is a natural cinder volcano situated on the southwestern edge of the Painted Desert in Northern Arizona. Since 1972 James Turrell has been transforming the crater into a large-scale artwork that relates, through the medium of light, to the universe of the surrounding sky, land and culture.
Organized as a distinct set of changing experiences of light, Turrell’s intervention in the natural form of Roden Crater consists of a series of chambers, pathways, tunnels, and openings onto the sky from within and around the crater’s surface.
The artist’s subtle refinement of the natural shape of the crater bowl held 400 feet above the horizon alters the viewer’s perception of the sky. Certain chambers within the crater will allow us to see and measure the passage of time through the movement of the stars and planets. Other spaces reveal the more subjective nature of our human relationship to time, light and space — the pyrotechnics of sunrise or sunset or the sensation of light as a material substance. Roden Crater sees (rather than represents) the sky and time, and summons our own vision as strongly as that of the artist.
Monumental in scale and conception, Turrell’s Roden Crater is not a monument in any traditional sense. It does not commemorate historical facts or achievements nor is its exterior form even distinct from its natural surroundings. Rather, harnessing the drama of light, landscape and celestial events, disturbing and awakening our subjective understanding of the universe, Turrell’s crater is a monument to human perception itself — without which cultural history or achievement would not be possible.”
— Michael Govan
"I admire Borobudur, Angkor Wat, Pagan, Machu Picchu, the Mayan pyramids, the Egyptian pyramids, Herodium, Old Sarum, Newgrange and the Maes Howe. These places and structures have certainly influenced my thinking. These thoughts will find concurrence in Roden Crater.
[Roden Crater] is a volcanic crater located in an area of exposed geology, the Painted Desert, an area where you feel geologic time. You have a strong feeling of standing on the surface of the planet.”
Fique fibers from Andes Mountains part of miracle solution for dye pollution, find scientists
A cheap and simple process using natural fibers embedded with nano-particles can almost completely rid water of harmful textile dyes in minutes, report Cornell University and Colombian researchers who worked with native Colombian plant fibers. Dyes, such as indigo blue used to color blue jeans, threaten waterways near textile plants in South America, India and China. Such dyes are toxic, and they discolor the water, thereby reducing light to the water plants, which limits photosynthesis and lowers the oxygen in the water.
The study, published in the August issue of the journal Green Chemistry, describes a proof of principle, but the researchers are testing how effectively their method treats such endocrine-disrupting water pollutants as phenols, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones and phthalates.
“These molecules are contaminants that are very resilient to traditional water-purification processes, and we believe our biocomposite materials can be an option for their removal from waste water,” said study co-author, Marianny Combariza, a researcher at Colombia’s Universidad Industrial de Santander.
The research takes advantage of nano-sized cavities found in cellulose that co-author Juan Hinestroza, Cornell associate professor of fiber science, has previously used to produce nanoparticles inside cotton fibers.The paper describes the method: Colombian fique plant fibers, commonly used to make coffee bags, are immersed in a solution of sodium permanganate and then treated with ultrasound; as a result, manganese oxide molecules grow in the tiny cellulose cavities. Manganese oxides in the fibers react with the dyes and break them down into non-colored forms.
In the study, the treated fibers removed 99 percent of the dye from water within minutes. Furthermore, the same fibers can be used repeatedly – after eight cycles, the fibers still removed between 97 percent and 99 percent of the dye.
“No expensive or particular starting materials are needed to synthesize the biocomposite,” said Combariza. “The synthesis can be performed in a basic chemistry lab.”
“This is the first evidence of the effectiveness of this simple technique,” said Hinestroza. “It uses water-based chemistry, and it is easily transferable to real-world situations.”
The researchers are testing their process on other types of pollutants, other fibers and composite materials. “We are working now on developing a low-cost filtering unit prototype to treat polluted waters,” said Combariza. “We are not only focused on manganese oxides, we also work on a variety of materials based on transition metal oxides that show exceptional degradation activity.”
Doctoral candidate Martha Chacón-Patiño is the paper’s lead author, and chemistry professor Cristian Blanco-Tirado is a co-author, both at Universidad Industrial de Santander.
The study, “Biocomposite of nanostructured MnO2 and fique fibers for efficient dye degradation,” was funded by COLCIENCIAS, the World Bank, the vice chancellor’s office of the Universidad Industrial de Santander, as well as Cornell’s Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies and Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Hatch Funds.
Mini Moon #montreal #sunset (at EV Building)